Ng, S. C., Chuah, H. Y., & Nungsari, M. (2022). A voice for the silent: Uncovering service exclusion practices. Journal of Services Marketing.
This paper provides an in-depth conceptualization of service exclusion by drawing on our exploratory research as well as thick and rich insights from our qualitative data. Qualitative research was used to explore service exclusion practices against customers experiencing vulnerabilities. A total of 28 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with refugees residing within Malaysia. The Gioia methodology was employed for our data analysis and the findings were validated by an independent moderator. Our empirical findings challenge how service exclusion is currently understood, by adding substantial depth and complexity beyond simply describing “the lack of access to services”. We also offer rich empirical findings describing 29 forms of exclusion, which were further reduced to seven types of service exclusion practices: discrimination, restriction, cost barriers, language and technology barriers, poor servicing, nonaccountability and non-inclusivity. This study conceptualizes service exclusion from a process perspective, that is, “how” customers experiencing vulnerabilities are being excluded, rather than “what” is excluded.