Almeida, Mansueto, Renato Lima-de-Oliveira, and Ben Ross Schneider., 2019. “Left Government, Business Politics, and the Revival of Industrial Policy.” In Routledge Handbook of Brazilian Politics, pp. 447-469. Routledge.


Discipline: Political Science; Public Policy


This paper examines the resurgence of industrial policy in Brazil with special attention to three successive industrial policies adopted by PT governments (2003-16): Pitce, PDP, and Brasil Maior. The Brazilian National Development Bank (BNDES) was central to all industrial policies and pursued additional policies to promote national champions and help Brazilian firms expand abroad. A fuller understanding of these policies requires close attention to the structure of big business in Brazil, as well as the evolving relationship between the state and the private sector.